Golconda is a ruined city located south-central India and the capital of ancient Kingdom of Golconda. Today this area is known as Hyderabad. The area was once known for their diamonds found in the Southeast area in a mine called the Kollur Mine.
In the past, these mines were the only known rough diamond mines in the world during 4th Century B.C. up until 1730. Only the finest diamonds were found and traded there. In fact, gemologists classified these diamonds in the “2A” range meaning they have practically no trace of nitrogen (diamonds are comprised mostly of carbon). And the defining characteristics of Golconda diamonds are their incredible transparency, “whiteness”, and overall purity. Golconda diamonds are so special and unique, it is highly prized, valuable, and extremely rare today. In fact, these diamonds are probably just archived at museums, Christie’s Auction House, or Sotheby’s Auction. Moreover, Golconda is believed to be the mine that has produced many famous diamonds such as:
These gorgeous diamonds were created due to the enormous forces of plate tectonics as the Tethys Oceanic Crust converged with the Asian Continental plate, forcing this place to be subducted underneath the other. The convergent fault contributed to creating volcanic activity of magma, where diamonds are originated from.
Today, Golconda diamonds are incorrectly used as high quality diamonds. However, only diamonds that have a high level of transparency and quality found only in rare, chemically and optically pure type-IIa natural diamonds can be labelled a Golconda diamond. Additionally, “Golconda” is also used as a broad term to describe higher quality diamonds with an antique cut.